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Understanding S Corporations



Understanding S Corporations

Choosing the right business structure for your enterprise is a crucial decision. It has long lasting ramifications, as it sets the path for the future in terms of operations, management, legal, and tax issues. Proper research should be done before you take your pick.

There are several organizational forms that businesses can choose from, including sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company (LLC), corporation, or an S corporation.

Here we discuss an S Corporation, its structure, advantages, disadvantages, and more.


  • An S corporation, also known as an S subchapter, refers to a type of legal business entity.
  • Requirements give a corporation with 100 shareholders or less the benefit of incorporation while being taxed as a partnership. 
  • Corporate taxes filed under Subchapter S may pass business income, losses, deductions, and credits to shareholders.
  • Shareholders report income and losses on individual tax returns, and pay taxes at ordinary tax rates.
  • S corporation shareholders must be individuals, specific trusts and estates, or certain tax-exempt organizations.

What Is an S Corporation?

S Corporation is a variation of a corporation within Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. Essentially, an S corp is any business that chooses to pass corporate income, losses, deductions, and credit through shareholders for federal tax purposes, with the benefit of limited liability and relief from “double taxation.”1 Some 30 million business owners include business profits on their personal income tax returns.

To be an S Corporation, your business first needs to be set up as a corporation by filling and submitting documents like the Articles of Incorporation or Certificate of incorporation to the appropriate government authority, along with the applicable fee.

Once the incorporation process is complete, all shareholders must sign and submit Form 2553 to be granted the S Corporation designation.2 From there, taxes are handled by the corporation’s shareholders on their individual returns.

According to Internal Revenue Service (IRS), to qualify for S corporation status, the corporation must meet the following requirements:1

  • Be domiciled in the United States
  • Have only allowable shareholders, which may include individuals, certain trusts, and estates, and cannot include partnerships, corporations, or non-resident alien shareholders
  • Have 100 or fewer shareholders
  • Have just one class of stock 
  • Not be an ineligible corporation (i.e. certain financial institutions, insurance companies, and domestic international sales corporations, which are forbidden the S corp structure)

Avoiding Double Taxation

According to the IRS:

Generally, an S corporation is exempt from federal income tax other than tax on certain capital gains and passive income. It is treated in the same way as a partnership, in that generally taxes are not paid at the corporate level.

This is one of the most appealing features of an S corporation. By contrast, the taxable income of a regular corporation is subject to double taxation, first at the corporate level, then at the individual income tax level.3

For example, a regular “C” corporation has four shareholders with equal shares and reports taxable income of $440,000 in a year on which the company needs to pay a corporate tax of 34% ($149,600). The company subsequently distributes the remaining amount ($290,400) among the four shareholders with each shareholder getting $72,600, which is again taxed.

S Corporations have an advantage here, as they are taxed once. The corporate income, loss, credits, and deductions are “passed through” to shareholders for tax purposes. The shareholders then report the same on their personal income tax returns (Form 1040), which are accordingly taxed at the applicable individual income tax rate.4 Thus an S Corporation is exempt from paying taxes at the corporate level.

This advantage is not granted to all S Corporations, however, as different states and municipalities have variations in tax laws. New York City, for example, imposes a full corporate income tax of 8.85%, though if that business can prove that it has business outside of the city, that portion can be exempt (for more on the NYC-only tax, click here.) California levies a similar charge—a franchise tax—which is 1.5% on net income, or a minimum of $800.5

Form 1120S is used to file the U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return for an S corporation.6 Shareholders’ profits, losses, and deductions are documented in Schedule K-1.7

More Advantages of an S Corp Structure

Self-Employment Tax

Employing an S Corporation structure can lower the self-employment tax. The taxable business income can be split into two components—salary and distribution. Here, only the salary component attracts the self-employment tax, thus reducing the overall tax liability. While in the case of a sole proprietorship, partnership, or LLC, the self-employment tax is applicable on the entire net business income.

The second component of the income comes to the shareholder (owner) as distribution, which is not taxed. By making a “reasonable” division between the two components, there can be a substantial amount of tax savings. It’s considered good to draw approximately 60% of the company’s income as salary since any unreasonable division could be construed as an attempt to avoid taxes.

Independent Life

Unlike a sole proprietorship or LLC (LLC without necessary inclusions in its operating agreement) where the life of the business is linked to the owner’s life or exit from business, an S Corporation has an independent life span. Its longevity is not dependent on shareholders, whether they depart or stay, thus making it relatively easy to do business and look at long-term goals and growth.1

Protective Shield

Personal assets of shareholders are protected by the structure of an S Corp. No shareholder is personally responsible for the liabilities and debts of the business. Creditors have no claim on the personal assets of shareholders in order to settle business debt, whereas personal assets are vulnerable under sole proprietorships or partnerships.

Transfer of Ownership

It’s relatively easy to transfer interest in an S Corporation as compared to other forms of business entities. The sale can be structured in two ways:

  1. An outright sale, where the buyer makes the purchase in one go and there is an immediate transfer of ownership
  2. A gradual sale, where the purchase is done over a period of time. Whichever way is chosen, the transfer of ownership is facilitated through a written sales agreement that formalizes the whole process

The same ease is not there in a sole proprietorship, which is very simple to form but equally hard to sell to another party.8


An S Corporation has high credibility among potential vendors, customers, and partners, as an S Corporation is a recognized business structure.

Some Disadvantages of S-Corps

S corporations also carry with them some possible disadvantages. Here is an overview:


This form of business entity requires many protocols to be followed, like scheduled meetings of directors and shareholders, meeting minutes, formalized by-laws, maintenance of proper records, and more recordkeeping requirements.9

Compensation Requirements

As discussed earlier, shareholders split corporate income into two parts (salary and distribution). Here, the IRS keeps a closer watch and takes notice of abrupt combinations, such as low salary-high distribution. If this is observed by IRS, then it makes changes accordingly, moving a larger sum under “salary.” which can lead to unexpected higher taxes.10

Extra Work and Cost

As compared to a sole proprietorship, S corporations need more accounting and bookkeeping, which can require the help of a qualified accountant, adding to the costs. In addition, there might be more banking and legal advice needed for business loans, taxation, and other issues. Even state governments and agencies levy more fees and taxes.

For example, Massachusetts levies an extra tax on profits once the company reaches a specified size.11

Added Restrictions

The IRS has laid down many criteria to qualify for the S corporation status which restricts the type and number of shareholders. For example, foreigners can’t be shareholders; all the owners need to be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Even during a transfer of ownership, the transfer can only be done to specified individuals, an estate, or trusts.

Noncompliance can lead to the IRS taking away S corporation status.1 This restricts the flexibility of the business. In addition, income and losses need to be allocated according to the percentage of ownership, unlike an LLC or partnership where the allocation can be different by setting it up in the operating agreement.

If you have a larger, faster-growing company, sticking with the C corporation might be a better fit. That structure allows multiple classes of stock and no limits on shareholders.12

Tax Changes

In 2013, federal income tax rate increases saw the top rate on individuals who earned $400,000 or more ($450,000 for joint filers) rise to 39.6% from 35% (which also happens to be the top corporate rate).13 Such changes highlight the necessity to monitor changes to tax rates and laws that could make the S corp structure less attractive compared to the regular corporate structure.

The Bottom Line

With features like limited liability and tax savings, the S corporation structure is used by 4.6 million U.S. companies.14 When compared with sole proprietorships or partnerships, S corporations have an edge on aspects like transfer of ownership and continuance of the business. However, S corporations can be disadvantageous for a single-owner, small business (less than $50,000 annually).

Before opting for an S corporation, make sure to check about rules and regulations, and especially tax treatment (and any additional fees and taxes) in your state or city. Also, it would be wise to consider hiring an attorney who can advise you on corporate structures. For more information, see the IRS’s information page on S corporations.


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10 Essential Tips for Investing in Tesla Stock



10 Essential Tips for Investing in Tesla Stock

Are you considering investing in Tesla stock? This article provides 10 essential tips to guide your investment decision. From analyzing financial performance to understanding market trends, these tips will help you make informed choices and maximize your potential returns.

Introduction: Investing in the stock market can be both exciting and daunting. With numerous companies and stocks available, it’s important to approach your investment decisions with careful analysis and research. Tesla, one of the most renowned electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers, has gained significant attention from investors worldwide. If you’re considering investing in Tesla stock, this article will provide you with essential tips to navigate the market effectively.

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents
1. Analyze Financial Performance
2. Assess Market Trends
3. Understand Tesla’s Competitive Advantage
5. Consider the Regulatory Environment
5. Consider Regulatory Environment
6. Review Tesla’s Leadership and Management Team
7. Analyze Tesla’s Supply Chain
8. Monitor Industry and Technological Developments
9. Evaluate Risk Factors
10. Seek Professional Advice

1. Analyze Financial Performance: (Tesla Stock)

When investing in Tesla stock, it’s crucial to analyze the company’s financial performance. This involves studying its revenue growth, profitability, debt levels, and cash flow. By understanding these metrics, you can gain insights into Tesla’s financial stability and potential for future growth.

2. Assess Market Trends: (Tesla Stock)

Staying informed about market trends is essential for making sound investment decisions. Research the electric vehicle industry, evaluate Tesla’s market share, and analyze its position in comparison to competitors. Identifying emerging trends and understanding consumer demand will give you a competitive edge.

3. Understand Tesla’s Competitive Advantage: (Tesla Stock)

Tesla’s competitive advantage lies in its innovative technology, brand reputation, and extensive Supercharger network. Dive deeper into these aspects to understand how they contribute to Tesla’s market position and competitive edge.

4. Evaluate Tesla’s Product Portfolio: (Tesla Stock)

Assess Tesla’s product portfolio, including its current lineup and upcoming models. Consider factors such as demand, production capacity, and consumer reception. Understanding the company’s product strategy will help you gauge its potential for growth and profitability.

5. Consider Regulatory Environment: (Tesla Stock)

The regulatory environment plays a significant role in the success of any company, particularly in the automotive industry. Stay updated on government regulations, incentives, and policies related to electric vehicles. These factors can impact Tesla’s operations and market performance.

6. Review Tesla’s Leadership and Management Team: (Tesla Stock)

Evaluate Tesla’s leadership and management team. Assess the experience and track record of key executives, their strategic vision, and their ability to execute plans effectively. Strong leadership is crucial for long-term success.

7. Analyze Tesla’s Supply Chain: (Tesla Stock)

Understanding Tesla’s supply chain is essential for assessing its manufacturing capabilities and potential bottlenecks. Analyze its relationships with suppliers, production efficiency, and ability to meet demand. A robust and efficient supply chain is critical for sustaining growth.

8. Monitor Industry and Technological Developments:

Stay informed about the latest industry and technological developments related to electric vehicles. Keep an eye on advancements in battery technology, autonomous driving, and renewable energy. Being aware of these trends can help you anticipate changes in the market.

9. Evaluate Risk Factors:

Every investment comes with its fair share of risks. Identify and evaluate potential risks associated with investing in Tesla stock. Factors like market volatility, competition, and regulatory changes can impact the company’s performance. Understanding these risks will assist you in making informed decisions.

10. Seek Professional Advice:

If you’re new to investing or feel overwhelmed by the complexities of the stock market, consider seeking professional advice. Consult with a financial advisor who specializes in investments and can provide personalized guidance based on your financial goals and risk tolerance.


  1. Is Tesla stock a good investment?
    • Answer: Investing in Tesla stock can be a viable option, given the company’s growth potential and market position. However, thorough research and analysis are crucial before making any investment decision.
  2. How can I buy Tesla stock?
    • Answer: You can buy Tesla stock through a brokerage account. Choose a reputable online brokerage and follow their instructions for opening an account and purchasing shares.
  3. What factors influence Tesla’s stock price?
    • Answer: Several factors can influence Tesla’s stock price, including financial performance, market trends, industry developments, and broader economic conditions.
  4. What are the risks of investing in Tesla stock?
    • Answer: Investing in Tesla stock carries risks, such as market volatility, competition, regulatory changes, and Tesla-specific factors like production delays or recalls.
  5. Can I invest in Tesla stock for the long term?
    • Answer: Tesla stock can be suitable for long-term investment, but it’s essential to regularly monitor the company’s performance and stay updated on industry developments.

Conclusion: Investing in Tesla stock can offer significant opportunities, given the company’s pioneering role in the electric vehicle market. However, it’s crucial to approach your investment decision with careful consideration and research. By analyzing Tesla’s financial performance, understanding market trends, and evaluating various factors, you can make informed choices to maximize your potential returns. Remember to diversify your investment portfolio and seek professional advice when needed. Happy investing!

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Invest in Companies.




Invest in Companies.

Investing in companies can be a lucrative way to grow your wealth over time. However, it’s important to understand the risks and rewards associated with investing in individual companies. Here are some key steps to follow when investing in companies:

  1. Do your research: Before investing in a company, it’s important to research the company’s financial health, business model, and competitive landscape. Look at the company’s financial statements, including its balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, to get a sense of its profitability and financial stability. Read up on the company’s industry and competitors to understand the broader market trends and dynamics that could affect the company’s future growth prospects.
  2. Assess the company’s growth potential: Once you have a good sense of the company’s financial health and competitive position, consider its growth potential. Is the company in a growing industry? Does it have a track record of successful innovation and product development? Is it expanding into new markets? These factors can all contribute to a company’s potential for future growth and profitability.
  3. Consider the company’s valuation: When investing in a company, it’s important to pay attention to its valuation. This refers to the price of the company’s stock relative to its earnings or other financial metrics. A company with a high valuation may be overvalued and at risk of a price correction, while a company with a low valuation may be undervalued and a good value investment opportunity.
  4. Diversify your portfolio: Investing in individual companies carries risk, so it’s important to diversify your portfolio to reduce risk. This means investing in a mix of stocks, bonds, and other securities to spread your investments across different companies and industries.
  5. Monitor your investments: Once you’ve invested in a company, it’s important to monitor your investments over time. Keep an eye on the company’s financial performance, news, and any changes in the broader market that could affect the company’s stock price. You may need to adjust your investment strategy over time to respond to changing market conditions.

In summary, investing in individual companies can be a rewarding way to grow your wealth, but it’s important to do your research, assess the company’s growth potential and valuation, diversify your portfolio, and monitor your investments over time. By following these steps, you can make informed investment decisions and increase your chances of success in the stock market.

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Investing in Digital Yuan: A New Era of Currency




Investing in Digital Yuan: A New Era of Currency

The digital yuan, also known as e-CNY or DCEP (Digital Currency Electronic Payment), is the digital version of China’s currency, the Renminbi (RMB). The digital yuan is being developed by the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) and is seen as a major step towards a more digital and cashless society. The digital yuan is currently in trial phase and has been piloted in several cities across China, with the goal of a nationwide roll-out in the near future.

Why Invest in Digital Yuan?

  1. Growing Adoption: As the world moves towards a cashless society, the digital yuan is poised to become a major player in the digital currency market. With a population of over 1.4 billion, the adoption of the digital yuan has the potential to be huge, making it an attractive investment opportunity.
  2. Backed by the Chinese Government: The digital yuan is being developed and backed by the PBOC, which is the central bank of China. This provides a level of security and stability for investors, as the government is committed to ensuring its success.
  3. Increased Efficiency: The digital yuan is designed to be faster and more efficient than traditional currency. Transactions can be completed quickly and securely, without the need for intermediaries like banks. This could potentially lead to lower transaction fees, making the digital yuan a more attractive option for consumers and businesses.
  4. Increased Accessibility: The digital yuan is designed to be accessible to everyone, regardless of their location or financial status. This could potentially increase financial inclusion, making it easier for people to access basic financial services.

Risks of Investing in Digital Yuan

  1. Regulation: The digital yuan is a relatively new technology and is still in the trial phase. As such, there are many uncertainties surrounding its regulation, which could potentially impact its value.
  2. Competition: The digital yuan is not the only digital currency on the market and will face competition from other digital currencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. This competition could potentially impact its adoption and success.
  3. Security: As with any digital currency, the digital yuan is vulnerable to hacking and cyberattacks. This could potentially impact its value and stability.

In conclusion, investing in the digital yuan is an exciting opportunity, but it is important to consider the risks involved. As with any investment, it is important to do your own research and assess whether the digital yuan is right for you. With the backing of the Chinese government, the potential for widespread adoption, and increased efficiency and accessibility, the digital yuan is definitely worth keeping an eye on.

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